Lay Paving


Preparation
Arrange your surface drainage to carry rain water away from your paving. Where you are paving over an area where water persistently lies in winter, put in agricultural drainpipes before you terrace over it.
Don’t plan your paths or terrace adjoining a house wall at a height that will take it above the damp proof course in the wall or cover over the underfloor ventilator grilles.

Most soils are strong enough to support path and patio traffic without subsoil preparation. The only preliminary work required is levelling and spreading a 50mm bed of fine crushed rock or bedding sand on which the payers are laid.
The exceptions are soft clay or loose sandy soils. These should be excavated and levelled to take a 75mm thick bed of plain concrete underlaying the terrace or path. This is topped with 50mm of sand or fine crushed rock on which the payers are laid.

Driveways liable to be used by light delivery trucks need a strengthened base. On soils of hard clay, dense gravel and sand, medium gravel and sand, and medium stiff clay the base should be 100mm of reinforced concrete, with adequate construction joints and a broom-finished surface.
On soft clay and loose sand the concrete should be 125mm thick. In both cases the concrete is topped by 50mm of bedding material and the payers laid on that.
It is advisable to use mortared joints between courses when laying a car driveway on a slope, otherwise the bricks or payers may slip out of position.

A good precaution is to embed a row of vertical bricks in concrete across the direction of the traffic at every 3 metre interval along the drive when the gradient is 5 degrees or more. Increase the rows of vertical bricks in concrete along each side of the drive. You can use these as guides for levelling.

Laying Out
After excavating the area to be paved, fasten edging boards, which must be as wide as the thickness of the paving material you are using, around the area. Check with a spirit level and set the edging board nearest your surface drainage point about 10mm lower for every 1 metre of terrace or path width, to allow for rainwater run-off.
Fill to the bottom of the edging boards with sand and screed the sand with a straight board until the sand is level with the bottoms of the edging boards.

Method.
Set the first and last paving units of the first row in position and string a line touching their bases. Then, working from the unexcavated area, lay the first course to the string line.
In the next course start and finish with a half brick or paving unit if the pattern you have chosen is a stretcher bond. Use the tops of the edging boards as guides for your string line.
Continue the course, but work from a large sheet of hardboard or plywood placed on either the sand or the laid bricks to avoid disturbing them before they are secured in place with sand or mortar when the job is finished.
If you need to adjust the height of any brick or payer, tap it with the handle of a hammer or a rubber mallet.
For mortarless fixing when the units are laid, sweep dry sand over the job until all joints are filled.

For strong mortar joints (of about 1 measure of cement, half measure of lime and 41/2 of sand) the joints must be filled as the units are laid.
You can finish the joints by “ironing” them with a bent 10mm diameter metal rod, or scrape the mortar out to a similar depth with a steel scraper, according to the finished effect you desire.

For a weaker mortar joint (of about 1 cement to 9 of sand) on a level paving you can mix the sand and cement dry and sweep it into the joints in a similar manner to sand jointing.
Be careful to keep the whole job dry until the sweeping is finished. Then wet the whole job down with a fine, low volume water spray.
A bow of vertical bricks embedded in mortar every 3 metres along driveways prevents movement, especially when the gradient is 5 degrees or more.

Cleaning the Work
Mortar stains can spoil the appearance of the finished pavement, so if you are laying the units with mortar joints, avoid smears and droppings as much as possible. If they do occur, wipe them off immediately with a rough fabric such as hessian or towelling. Then, when the mortar joints have set, but in any case within two days of laying the pavement, clean the work with plenty of clean water, a scrubbing brush, wooden scraper and hessian.
If some stains are stubborn, rub them with a weak solution of spirits of salts, adding not more than one volume of the spirit to 20 of water.

Tools
Hammer, pencil, brush for oil, steel trowel, bucket, rule, saw, wooden float, shovel and bags of concrete mix.

Materials (Timber)
The sides – 2 pieces 1105mm x 70mm x 19mm.
The ends – 2 pieces 762mm x 70mm x 19mm.
Cross pieces – 1 piece 692mm x 70mm x 19mm, 1 piece 724mm x 70mm x 19mm, 1 piece 413mm x 70mm x 19mm.
Approximately 36 50mm x 2.80mm galvanized bullet head nails; 1 pair cheap pressed metal “D” handles; and one masonite sheet – 1200mm x 90mm.

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